RU-695449 330 - ая открытка

Country: Russia

Distance: 3,827 km

Travel time:  18 days



Jaukių, šiltų, linksmų švenčių!


Happy New Year!



God Jul & Gott Nytt Ar


FI-1285313 329 - ая открытка

Country: Finland

Distance: 536 km

Travel time:  7 days



FI-1285538 328 - ая открытка

Country: Finland

Distance: 572 km

Travel time:  6 days



DE-1167880 327 - ая открытка

Country: Germany

Distance: 767 km

Travel time:  10 days

On postcard: Halle

Halle (officially Halle (Westf.) or Halle in Westfalen (i.e. Westphalia), to distinguish from the larger Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, officially Halle/Saale) is a town in the German Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia and belongs to the district of Gütersloh.

Halle is situated in the sandy plain of the river Ems on the southern slopes of the Teutoburg Forest, which crosses the town territory from northwest to southeast. This mountain range delimits the Eastern part of the Münsterland and the Westfalian Bay and is the drainage divide between the rivers Ems and Weser here. The highest points are the Hengeberg elevating 316 meters and the Eggeberg elevating 312 meters. With 70 meters the south- western outskirts are the lowest point. There the creeks Hessel, Rhedaer Bach as well as the Ruthebach leave the city limits, while the Ruthebach joins the Lodenbach there. All creeks have its spring in the Teutoburg Forest and ultimately join the river Ems. The territory of Halle is essentially characterized by agriculture, but has also a substantial amount of forest areas, namely the Teutoburg Forest and the Tatenhausen Forest as well as 40 hectares (99 acres) of city forest. The 52nd degree of latitude traverses the town area in its southern part.


Halle is located in the Ravensberg Land or more specifically in the County of Ravensberg, deducted from the Burg Ravensberg located in the neighbouring community of Borgholzhausen. The vicissitudes of history were predominantly influenced by the bishops of Osnabrück, Napoleon and German emperors.

The area of the town and the former district of Halle formerly belonged to the Ravensberg. The latter was surrounded by the principalities of Osnabrück, Münster, Paderborn and Minden and was neighbouring the Principality of Lippe. In contrast to these principalities Ravensberg always has been secular estate, which at first belonged to the Counts of Ravensberg and later to their Jülich heirs. After this nobility also became extinct the county, along with others, came into possession of the house of Kleve-Mark and about a century later via the Margraviate of Brandenburg of the kingdom of Prussia.

In the year 1246 bishop Engelbert of Osnabrück swapped the church "tor Halle", situated on the southern edge of his diocese, with all rights and duties with the castle and Benedictine Abbey Iburg in exchange for the church in Rheda with all rights and earnings. In the document, dating May 9, 1246, which seals the exchange – in a manner of speaking the certificate of birth – Halle is mentioned for the first time. The two villages Oldendorf and Gartnisch, today subdivisions of Halle embracing it in the east and west, are older than the present core of settlement. They are already mentioned as early as in the 11th century.

The Ravensberg rent-roll, finalized in 1556, lists 49 names in Halle between the years 1491 and 1541, thereof 26 free citizens and 23 bondmen of the territorial lord respectively of the noble landlords in Steinhausen and Tatenhausen. The population is estimated around 350 heads in the 16th century. During this time the Protestant Reformation began in Halle, gradually but largely changing people's religious affiliation. Only few noble families remained Roman Catholic, among them the Lords of castle Tatenhausen, in whose territory the catholic community Stockkämpen continues to exist to date.

On April 17, 1719 Halle was granted town privileges by king Frederick William I of Prussia and it was capital of the district of Halle for 150 years. As a result of the Prussian defeat against Napoleon the town came under French reign between 1807 and 1813. Temporarily Halle was divided, the border between the French Empire and the Kingdom of Westphalia passed through the town (partly alongside the Laibach creek). During this time the population suffered from the pressing encumbrances caused by the necessity to finance the French Revolutionary Wars.

In 1813 Prussia regained the administration. Halle was allocated to the Regierungsbezirk Minden in the Province of Westphalia and again became capital of its own district.

Until well into the 19th century Halle remained largely agrarian- oriented, mainly grain, flax or hemp was cultivated and animal husbandry was run. The traffic infrastructure of Halle, being located alongside several supra-regional roads, was not disadvantageous; however there were no paved roads until 1844 and the town was always outshined by Bielefeld.

In the mid 19th century the town changed its face with industrialization setting in and gained significance. In particular, the connection to the railway line "Haller Willem" (Bielefeld-Osnabrück) since 1886 played a prominent role. A brandy distillery (Kisker), cold-meat factories and woodwork undertakings came into existence.

The next essential change was brought by World War II respectively its consequences. Owing to the absorption and integration of a large number of refugees grave economic and demographic shifts were brought about.

After almost 160 years Halle lost its position as district capital due to a reorganization of administrative districts in 1973: Gütersloh became capital of the new district. Until then Halle even had its own license plate code "HW".

There are no known documents about the name Halle and the nascence of the town. The most common (but non- provable) explanation is that it is derived from "hale", meaning salt.


More than half of the population is member of Lutheran churches, some 15 % are Roman Catholic. Besides the Lutheran parish of Evangelical Church of Westphalia (with the two churches of St. Johannis and Hörste) and the Catholic parish Herz-Jesu (Sacred Heart of Jesus) there are also the Free Church congregations of the Mennonites-Plymouth Brethren, the New Apostolic Church and the Free Evangelical Church. Muslims can attend services in the Ayasofya Mosque of the Turkish-Islamic cultural association and additionally Jehovah's Witnesses as well as the Kurdish Yazidi are represented with one parochial bodies each.



DE-1154228 326 - ая открытка

Country: Germany

Distance: 1,039 km

Travel time:  19 days

On postcard: Oberursel (Taunus)

Oberursel (Taunus) is a town in Germany. It is located to the north west of Frankfurt, and is the second largest town in the county of Hochtaunuskreis and the 14th largest town in Hessen.

Extent of municipal area

The maximum distance from the northern town border to the southern border is 7.2 km; the maximum distance from east to west is 13.0 km.

Neighbouring communities

To the north Oberursel borders with Schmitten, to the east with Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, to the south-east with Frankfurt, to the southwest with Steinbach and to the west with Kronberg.

Town districts

Besides the town centre (including Bommersheim), Oberursel is divided into the districts Oberstedten (population 6,118), Stierstadt (5,541) and Weißkirchen (Oberursel) (5,151). Bommersheim was annexed before the municipal reform of 1972 and therefore is not an independent district.


The town was first mentioned as "Ursella" in 791 in a deed recording a donation to the monastery Lorsch. In the year 880 the first church in the area, called "monasterium ad ursellam", was mentioned. In 1317 the first trading activities were documented. In 1444 Oberursel was officially sanctioned as a town. Two years later, the town wall was finished. Since the town was growing so fast in the 15th century the town walls had to be expanded in 1481 towards the east. In the early 16th century a school for Latin language was established next to the church.

1535 Oberursel become property of Earl Ludwig von Stolberg-Königstein and becomes a Protestant town. 1557 Nicolaus Henricus built the first printing plant in Oberursel. 1605 due to the counter-reformation Oberursel becomes Catholic again. The most important industry in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern times was the clothier business.

During the Thirty Years' War the town was destroyed three times, in 1622 and 1645, and the number of inhabitants decreased from 1600 to 600. During the 1645 razing, most buildings were destroyed by fire; the three surviving buildings were the old town hall, the bakery, and one apartment house near the marketplace. This is the reason why nearly all houses in the old town of Oberursel are from the 17th century.

As the town was rebuilt and grew, many mills and forges were founded along the "Urselbachtal". By 1858, industrialisation had begun in Oberursel, with several cotton-spinning mills being built. In 1860 Oberursel was linked to the railway between Bad Homburg and Frankfurt. In 1899 a subway was opened running in the in direction of Hohemark (currently Line U3).

During the Second World War, many captured American and British airmen passed through Oberursel as they were interrogated and processed into the German POW camp system at the "Durchgangslager der Luftwaffe" or "Transit Camp of the Luftwaffe" located in the town. The camp name was commonly shortened to "Dulag Luft", or simply "Dulag". Almost all allied airmen who were shot down and captured spent some time at that camp before being moved to their permanent assigned "Stalag".

After the occupation of Oberursel by the USA in April 1945, the "Dulag" area was taken over by the US Army. The existing buildings were transformed into Camp King, which began as an intelligence post, then later a transportation post until its deactivation in 1993. Today the former Camp King is a residential area, still populated by several former US soldiers.

Museums and Regular events

The "Vortaunusmuseum" is located in the central marketplace. Its exhibits illustrate the town's history and the history of soap box derbys. Soap box derbys were invented in Oberursel, and the world championship is held in Oberursel every year.

Another popular event occurring in Oberursel the Brunnenfest, an annual village fair held in the early summer, which attracts visitors from surrounding areas and around the world.



BY-306575 325 - ая открытка

Country: Belarus

Distance: 286 km

Travel time:  12 days

On postcard: Watchtower, Grodno

Watchtower built in 1901. Like a sentry, it guards historical buildings.



BY-309266 324 - ая открытка

Country: Belarus

Distance: 458 km

Travel time:  8 days



FR-181617 323 - ая открытка

Country: France

Distance: 1,513 km

Travel time:  9 days



CN-490842 322 - ая открытка

Country: China

Distance: 6,757 km

Travel time:  22 days



PL-319499 321 - ая открытка

Country: Poland

Distance: 485 km

Travel time:  16 days

On postcard: Centennial Hall

The Centennial Hall (German: Jahrhunderthalle, Polish: Hala Stulecia (formerly Hala Ludowa - People's Hall)) is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland. It was constructed according to the plans of architect Max Berg in 1911–1913, when the city was part of the German Empire. As an early landmark of reinforced concrete architecture, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006.

The building is frequently visited by tourists and the local populace. It lies close to other popular tourist attractions, such as the Wrocław Zoo, the Japanese Garden, and the Pergola with its Multimedia Fountain.


It was in the Lower Silesian capital of Breslau on 10 March 1813 where King Frederick William III of Prussia called upon the Prussian and German people in his proclamation An Mein Volk to rise up against Napoleon's occupation. In October of that year, at the Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon was defeated.

The opening of the hall was part of the celebration commemorating the 100th anniversary of the battle, hence the name. Breslau's municipal authorities had vainly awaited state funding and ultimately had to defray the enormous costs out of their own pockets. The landscaping and buildings surrounding the hall were laid out by Hans Poelzig were opened on 20 May 1913 in the presence of Crown Prince William of Hohenzollern. The grounds include a huge pond with fountains enclosed by a huge concrete pergola in the form of half an ellipse. Beyond this, to the north, a Japanese garden was created. The Silesian author Gerhart Hauptmann had specially prepared a play Festspiel in deutschen Reimen, however the mise-en-scène by Max Reinhardt was suspended by national-conservative circles for its antimilitaristic tendencies.

After the memorial events, the building served as multi-purpose recreational building, situated in the Exhibition Grounds, previously used for horse racing. It was largely spared from the devastation by the Siege of Breslau and after the city had become part of the Republic of Poland according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement, the hall was renamed Hala Ludowa ("People's Hall") by the communist government. In 1948, a 106 m (348 ft) high needle-like metal sculpture called Iglica was set up in front of it. The hall was extensively renovated in 1997. Recently the Polish translation of the original German name, Hala Stulecia, is also used with reference to the history of the building.

Centennial Hall hosted EuroBasket 1963 and a preliminary round group of the EuroBasket 2009 tournament.

The hall continues to be in active use for sporting events and concerts.


The cupola modeled on the Festhalle Frankfurt was made of reinforced concrete, and with an inner diameter of 69 m (226 ft) and 42 m (138 ft) high it was the largest building of its kind at the time of construction. The symmetrical quatrefoil shape with a large circular central space seats 7,000 persons. The dome itself is 23 m (75 ft) high, made of in steel and glass. The Jahrhunderthalle became a key reference for the development of reinforced concrete structures in the 20th century.

The hall was originally provided with a Sauer pipe organ built by Walcker Orgelbau, which then, with 15,133 pipes and 200 stops, ranked as the world's largest. On 24 September 1913, Karl Straube was the first to play it, performing Max Reger's Introduction, Passacaglia and Fugue for Organ Op. 127, specially composed to celebrate the occasion. Most parts of the organ were transferred to the rebuilt Wrocław Cathedral after World War II.


The hall lies east of the city centre, but can easily be reached by tram or bus.

The hall is open daily to visitors for a small entrance fee.



З Новим Роком!


Bailiwick of Guernsey, English Channel, Normandy

Guernsey, officially the Bailiwick of Guernsey (gurn-zee; French: Bailliage de Guernesey, is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

The Bailiwick, as a governing entity, embraces not only all 10 parishes on the Island of Guernsey, but also the islands of Herm, Jethou,Burhou, and Lihou and their islet possessions. The Bailiwick of Guernsey also administers some aspects of two nearby crown dependencies (Alderney and Sark), and the island of Brecqhou.

Although its defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom, the Bailiwick of Guernsey is not part of the UK; and while it participates in the Common Travel Area, it is not part of the European Union.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is included (along with the Bailiwick of Jersey) in the grouping known as the Channel Islands.


The name of Guernsey, as that of neighbouring Jersey, is of Old Norse origin. The second element of Guernsey (-ey) is the Old Norse for "island". The first element is uncertain, traditionally taken to mean "green," but perhaps rather representing an Old Norse personal name, possibly Grani's.


Rising sea levels caused by prehistoric global warming transformed Guernsey from being the tip of a peninsula jutting out into the emergent English Channel around 6000 BC, into an island when it and other promontories were cut off from continental Europe.

At this time, Neolithic farmers settled the coasts and built the dolmens and menhirs that dot the islands. The island of Guernsey contains three sculpted menhirs of great archaeological interest; the dolmen known as L'Autel du Dehus also contains a dolmen deity known as Le Gardien du Tombeau.

During their migration to Brittany, the Britons occupied the Lenur Islands (former name of the Channel Islands including Sarnia or Lisia(Guernsey) and Angia (Jersey). It was formerly thought that the island's original name was Sarnia, but recent research indicates that might have been the Latin name for Sark; although Sarnia remains the island's traditional designation. Coming from the Kingdom of Gwent, SaintSampson (abbot of Dol, in Brittany) is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey.

In 933 the islands, formerly under the control of William I, then Duchy of Brittany were annexed by the Duchy of Normandy. The island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy. In the islands, Elizabeth II's traditional title as head of state is Duke of Normandy.

During the Middle Ages the island was repeatedly attacked by continental pirates and naval forces, especially during the Hundred Years War when the island was occupied by the Capetians on several occasions, the first being in 1339.

In 1372 the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch (remembered as Yvon de Galles), who was in the pay of the French king. Lawgoch and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey legend as an invasion byfairies from across the sea.

During the English Civil War, Guernsey sided with Parliament, while Jersey remained Royalist.Guernsey's decision was mainly related to the higher proportion ofCalvinists and other Reformed churches, as well as Charles I's refusal to take up the case of some Guernsey seamen who had been captured by the Barbary corsairs. The allegiance was not total, however; there were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne, and Royalist troops. Castle Cornet, which had been built to protect Guernsey, was turned on by the town of St. Peter Port, who constantly bombarded it. It was the last Royalist stronghold to capitulate, in 1651, and was also the focus of a failed invasion attempt by Louis XIV of France in 1704.

During the wars with France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries, Guernsey shipowners and sea captains exploited their proximity to mainland Europe, applying for Letters of Marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers.

By the beginning of the 18th century Guernsey's residents were starting to settle in North America. The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade, and the rise of the stone industry. One notable Guernseyman, William Le Lacheur, established the Costa Rican coffee trade with Europe.

During World War I approximately 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment which was formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey was occupied by German troops in World War II. Before the occupation, many Guernsey children were evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families.

During the occupation, some people from Guernsey were deported by the Germans to camps in the southwest of Germany, notably to Biberach an der Riß and interned in the Lindele Camp ("Lager Lindele"). There was also a concentration camp built in Alderney where forced labourers, predominantly from Eastern Europe, were kept. It was the only concentration camp built on British soil and is commemorated on memorials under Alderney's name in French: 'Aurigny'. Among those deported was Ambrose (later Sir Ambrose) Sherwill, who, as the President of the States Controlling Committee, was de facto head of the civilian population. Sir Ambrose, who was Guernsey-born, had served in the British Army during the First World War and later became Bailiff of Guernsey.

Certain laws were passed at the insistence of the occupying forces; for example, a reward was offered to informants who reported anyone for painting "V-for Victory" signs on walls and buildings, a practice that had become popular among islanders who wished to express their loyalty to Britain.

Three islanders of Jewish descent were deported to Auschwitz, never to return.

Guernsey was very heavily fortified during World War II by 4x Russian 305mm guns made in 1911 out of all proportion to its strategic value. There are German defences visible all round the coast and additions were made to Castle Cornet and a windmill. Hitler became obsessed with the idea that the Allies would try to regain the islands at any price, and over 20% of the material that went into the Atlantic Wall was committed to the Channel Islands. 47,000 sq m of concrete were used on gun bases. Most of the German fortifications remain intact; although the majority of them are on private property, several are open to the public.



US-1434838 320 - ая открытка

Country: USA

Distance: 7,295 km

Travel time:  12 days

On postcard: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

Grand Canyon National Park is the United States' 15th oldest national park and is located in Arizona. Within the park lies the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, considered to be one of the Wonders of the World. The park covers 1,217,403 acres (1,902 sq mi; 4,927 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties.

Most visitors to the park come to the South Rim, arriving on Arizona State Route 64. The Highway enters the park through the South Entrance, near Tusayan, Arizona, and heads eastward, leaving the park through the East Entrance. All park accommodations are operated by the Xanterra corporation. Park headquarters are at Grand Canyon Village, a short distance from the South Entrance, being also the location of the most popular viewpoints. Some thirty miles of the South Rim are accessible by road. A much smaller venue for tourists is found on the North Rim, accessed by Arizona State Route 67. There is no road connection between the two within Arizona except via the Navajo Bridge, near Page, Arizona, entailing a five-hour drive. Otherwise, the two rims of the Canyon are connected via Las Vegas, Nevada, and the Hoover Dam.

The rest of the Grand Canyon is extremely rugged and remote, although many places are accessible by pack trail and backcountry roads.


Grand Canyon National Park became a national park in 1919. So famous is this landmark to modern Americans that it seems surprising that it took more than thirty years for it to become a national park. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the rim in 1903 and exclaimed: "The Grand Canyon fills me with awe. It is beyond comparison—beyond description; absolutely unparalleled throughout the wide world. ... Let this great wonder of nature remain as it now is. Do nothing to mar its grandeur, sublimity and loveliness. You cannot improve on it. But what you can do is to keep it for your children, your children's children, and all who come after you, as the one great sight which every American should see."

Despite Roosevelt's enthusiasm and his strong interest in preserving land for public use, the Grand Canyon was not immediately designated as a national park. The first bill to create Grand Canyon National Park was introduced in 1882 and again in 1883 and 1886 by Senator Benjamin Harrison. As President, Harrison established the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve in 1893. Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon Game Preserve by proclamation in 1906 and Grand Canyon National Monument in 1908. Senate bills to establish a national park were introduced and defeated in 1910 and 1911. The Grand Canyon National Park Act was finally signed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. The National Park Service, established in 1916, assumed administration of the park.

The creation of the park was an early success of the environmental conservation movement. Its National Park status may have helped thwart proposals to dam the Colorado River within its boundaries. (Lack of this fame may have enabled Glen Canyon Dam to be built upriver, flooding Glen Canyon and creating Lake Powell.) In 1975, the former Marble Canyon National Monument, which followed the Colorado River northeast from the Grand Canyon to Lee's Ferry, was made part of Grand Canyon National Park. In 1979, UNESCO declared it as a World Heritage Site.

The Grand Canyon, including its extensive system of tributary canyons, is valued for its combination of large size, depth, and the exposed layering of colorful rocks dating back to Precambrian times. It was created through the incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries after the Colorado Plateau was uplifted and the Colorado River system developed along its present path.

South Rim

The South Rim is easier to visit than the North Rim. Access is available from I-40 from Las Vegas, California and the west coast and from Flagstaff, Arizona and points east, i.e., New Mexico or east of the Mississippi River. For areas to the north, U.S. 89 connects Utah and Colorado and the North Rim of the canyon to the south rim.


The Grand Canyon Village is located at the north end of U.S. 180, coming from Flagstaff. This is a full-service community, which includes lodging, fuel, food, souvenir, a hospital, churches and access to trails and guided walks and talks.


Lodging is available along the south rim at two locations. Campgrounds with tables and fireplaces are located in the village and at Desert View. Hotel-Motels include El Tovar Hotel, located in the village, and the Grand Canyon Lodge, located next to the campground.


Activities vary from passive to strenuous and physical. For individuals with limitations (be it physical or time), there is the South Rim Drive (35 miles (56 km)). It is split into two segments. The West Rim is 8 miles (13 km) to Hermits' Rest. There are several overlooks along the way, including Mohave Point and Hopi Point, as well as the Powell Memorial. The East Rim is 25 miles (40 km) out to Desert View. During the busy summer season, private vehicles are restricted along much of this route and a free shuttle gives everyone a chance to watch the scenery.Grand Canyon National Park.

For individuals interested in a leisurely stroll along the canyon rim, there is the Rim Trail, which follows the canyon for 4 miles (6.4 km) from the Yavapai Museum east to Maricopa Point. The Canyon Rim Nature Trail is only 1.5 miles (2.4 km) and leads from the El Tovar Hotel to the Park Visitor center.

Grand Canyon Association

The Grand Canyon Association (GCA) is the National Park Service's official non-profit partner raising private funds to benefit Grand Canyon National Park. It operates retail shops and visitor centers within the park, and provides educational opportunities about the natural and cultural history of the region. It was founded by naturalist Edwin D. McKee in February 1932 as the Grand Canyon Natural History Association.

In October 1994, the association's board of directors approved changing the name of the association from Grand Canyon Natural History Association to Grand Canyon Association, in part to emphasize an expanding list of services, books, and products focusing on cultural history, thus not always fitting the bill of "natural history."

In 2010, Grand Canyon National Park was honored with its own coin under the America the Beautiful Quarters program.


GCA publishes 3 to 5 books on average annually. Topics of their books include original research on the Grand Canyon, scientific monographs, American Indian history, and guidebooks.

In association with Grand Canyon National Park, GCA co-publishes the park's newspaper, The Guide, with translations in many languages, including Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, French, German, Korean, and Italian.



NL-928391 319 - ая открытка

Country: Netherlands

Distance: 1,123 km

Travel time:  7 days



JP-221234 318 - ая открытка

Country: Japan

Distance:  8,347 km

Travel time:  12 days



CH-95836 317 - ая открытка

Country: Switzerland

Distance:  1,359 km

Travel time:  8 days



Šibenik, Republika Hrvatska

Šibenik  is a historic town in Croatia, with population of 51,553 (2001). It is located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea. Šibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of Šibenik-Knin county.


In Croatian, the town is known as Šibenik, in Italian as Sebenico, in German as Sibennig, in Latin as Sebenicum, and in Hungarian as Sibenik.


Šibenik has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, July and August are the hottest months. In July the average maximum temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F).


Early history

Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, Šibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of Saint Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, Šibenik is also called "Krešimirov grad" (Krešimir's city). It is the oldest native Croatian town on the eastern shores of the Adriatic.

Between the 11th and 12th centuries, Šibenik was tossed back and forth among Venice, Byzantium, Hungary and the Kingdom of Bosnia. It was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands amongst the aforementioned states several more times until 1180.

The city was given the status of a town in 1167 from Stephen III of Hungary. It received its own diocese in 1298.

The city, like the rest of Dalmatia, resisted the Venetians in a three-year war that was resolved in their favor in 1412. The Ottoman Empire started to threaten Šibenik, as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and Šubićevac (Barone).

The fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797 brought Šibenik under the authority of the Habsburg Monarchy.

20th century

After World War I, Šibenik was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Over the course of Allied bombing of the city, the Church of Sveti Nikola (Saint Nicholas) in the Mandalina settlement was destroyed. After WWII it became a part of the SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.

During the Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995), Šibenik was heavily attacked by the Yugoslav National Army and Serbian paramilitary troops. Although under-armed, the nascent Croatian army and the people of Šibenik managed to defend the city. The battle lasted for six days (16–22 September), often referred to as the "September battle". The bombings damaged numerous buildings and monuments, including the dome of the Cathedral of St. James and the 1870-built theatre building.

In an August 1995 military operation, Croatian Army defeated the Serb forces and freed the occupied areas, which created the basic conditions for its post-war recovery and allowed the region to continue to develop as the centre of Šibenik-Knin county. Architecturally, the damaged parts of the city have been fully reconstructed.

Main sights

The central church in Šibenik, the Cathedral of St. James, is on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in Gothic and in Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the Cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by Serbian forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.

Fortifications in Šibenik

Main article: St. Nicholas Fortress

In the town of Šibenik there are four fortresses:

St. Nicholas Fortress (Croatian: Tvrđava Sv. Nikole) is a fortress located at sea, at the entrance of Šibenik's port.

Natural heritage

A couple of kilometers north of the city is the Krka National Park, similar to the more famous Plitvice Lakes National Park, renowned for its many waterfalls, flora, fauna, and historical and archaeological remains.

The Kornati archipelago, west of Šibenik, consists of 150 islands in a sea area of about 320 km², making it the densest archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

Culture and events

The annual Šibenik International Children's Festival (Međunarodni Dječji Festival) takes place every summer.

The composer Jakov Gotovac founded the city's "Philharmonia Society" in 1922. The composer Franz von Suppé was part of the city's cultural fabric, as he was a native of nearby Split.



BE-123216 316- ая открытка

Country: Belgium

Distance: 1,159 km

Travel time:  38 days



С Новым годом!


Merry Christmas

todays scan6

todays scan7

С Новым годом!

todays scan3


UA-174184 315- ая открытка

Country: Ukraine

Distance: 682 km

Travel time:  12 days

On postcard: Lviv

Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів L’viv, Polish: Lwów; Russian: Львов, L'vov; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following Holocaust and Polish population transfers (1944–1946). The historical heart of Lviv with its old buildings and cobblestone roads has survived World War II and ensuing Soviet presence largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as the Lviv University and the Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also a home to many world-class cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the famous Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lviv celebrated its 750th anniversary with a son et lumière in the city centre in September 2006.

Lviv was founded in 1256 in Red Ruthenia by King Danylo Halytskyi of the Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, and named in honour of his son, Lev. Together with the rest of Red Ruthenia, Lviv was captured by the Kingdom of Poland in 1349 during the reign ofPolish king Casimir III the Great. Lviv belonged to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland 1349–1772, the Austrian Empire 1772–1918 and the Second Polish Republic 1918–1939. With the Invasion of Poland at the outbreak of the second World War, the city of Lviv with adjacent land were annexed and incorporated into the Soviet Union, becoming part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1939 to 1941. Between July 1941 and July 1944 Lviv was under German occupation and was located in the General Government. In July 1944 it was captured by the Soviet Red Army and the Polish Home Army. According to the agreements of the Yalta Conference, Lviv was again integrated into the Ukrainian SSR. Most of the Poles living in Lviv were resettled into Polish territories annexed from Germany.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the city remained a part of the now independent Ukraine, for which it currently serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast, and is designated as its own raion (district) within that oblast.

On 12 June 2009 the Ukrainian magazine Focus assessed Lviv as the best Ukrainian city to live in. Its more Western European flavor lends it the nickname the "Little Paris of Ukraine".

The city is expecting a sharp increase in the number of foreign visitors next summer for the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship, and as a result a major new airport terminal is being built. Lviv is one of 8 Polish and Ukrainian cities that is co-hosting the group stages of the tournament.


Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 km from the Polish border and 160 km (99 mi) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of Lviv is 296 m (971.13 ft) above sea level. Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 m (1,341.86 ft) above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.

The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the river Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas where it flows through the city. The river flows directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect Svobody) and the renowned Lviv Opera House.

todays scan

todays scan2

BY-294510 314 - ая открытка

Country: Belarus

Distance: 458 km

Travel time:  11 days

todays scan4

todays scan5

FI-1270241 313 - ая открытка

Country: Finland

Distance: 645 km

Travel time:  5 days