Šibenik, Republika Hrvatska

Šibenik  is a historic town in Croatia, with population of 51,553 (2001). It is located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea. Šibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of Šibenik-Knin county.


In Croatian, the town is known as Šibenik, in Italian as Sebenico, in German as Sibennig, in Latin as Sebenicum, and in Hungarian as Sibenik.


Šibenik has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, July and August are the hottest months. In July the average maximum temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F).


Early history

Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, Šibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of Saint Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, Šibenik is also called "Krešimirov grad" (Krešimir's city). It is the oldest native Croatian town on the eastern shores of the Adriatic.

Between the 11th and 12th centuries, Šibenik was tossed back and forth among Venice, Byzantium, Hungary and the Kingdom of Bosnia. It was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands amongst the aforementioned states several more times until 1180.

The city was given the status of a town in 1167 from Stephen III of Hungary. It received its own diocese in 1298.

The city, like the rest of Dalmatia, resisted the Venetians in a three-year war that was resolved in their favor in 1412. The Ottoman Empire started to threaten Šibenik, as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and Šubićevac (Barone).

The fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797 brought Šibenik under the authority of the Habsburg Monarchy.

20th century

After World War I, Šibenik was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Over the course of Allied bombing of the city, the Church of Sveti Nikola (Saint Nicholas) in the Mandalina settlement was destroyed. After WWII it became a part of the SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.

During the Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995), Šibenik was heavily attacked by the Yugoslav National Army and Serbian paramilitary troops. Although under-armed, the nascent Croatian army and the people of Šibenik managed to defend the city. The battle lasted for six days (16–22 September), often referred to as the "September battle". The bombings damaged numerous buildings and monuments, including the dome of the Cathedral of St. James and the 1870-built theatre building.

In an August 1995 military operation, Croatian Army defeated the Serb forces and freed the occupied areas, which created the basic conditions for its post-war recovery and allowed the region to continue to develop as the centre of Šibenik-Knin county. Architecturally, the damaged parts of the city have been fully reconstructed.

Main sights

The central church in Šibenik, the Cathedral of St. James, is on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in Gothic and in Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the Cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by Serbian forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.

Fortifications in Šibenik

Main article: St. Nicholas Fortress

In the town of Šibenik there are four fortresses:

St. Nicholas Fortress (Croatian: Tvrđava Sv. Nikole) is a fortress located at sea, at the entrance of Šibenik's port.

Natural heritage

A couple of kilometers north of the city is the Krka National Park, similar to the more famous Plitvice Lakes National Park, renowned for its many waterfalls, flora, fauna, and historical and archaeological remains.

The Kornati archipelago, west of Šibenik, consists of 150 islands in a sea area of about 320 km², making it the densest archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

Culture and events

The annual Šibenik International Children's Festival (Međunarodni Dječji Festival) takes place every summer.

The composer Jakov Gotovac founded the city's "Philharmonia Society" in 1922. The composer Franz von Suppé was part of the city's cultural fabric, as he was a native of nearby Split.



0 коммент.:

Отправить комментарий