FI-1145738 191 - ая открытка

Country: Finland

Distance: 665 km

Travel time:  16 days



IE-23701 190 - ая открытка

Country: Ireland

Distance: 1,780 km

Travel time:  9 days

On postcard: Connemara, Ireland

Connemara (Irish: Conamara) is a district in the west of Ireland consisting of a broad peninsula between Killary Harbour and Kilkieran Bay in the west of County Galway.

The term Connemara is frequently used (although incorrectly) to describe all of County Galway west of Lough Corrib. It is also used to describe the Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking areas) of western County Galway; however, this is inaccurate as some of these areas are outside of the traditional boundary of Connemara. Another misconception is that Connemara's eastern boundary ends around Inverin and Maam Cross.


"Connemara" derives from the tribal name Conmacne Mara, which designated a branch of the Conmacne, an early tribal grouping that had a number of branches located in different parts of Connacht. Since this particular branch of the Conmacne lived by the sea, they became known as the Conmacne Mara. (Sea in Irish is muir, genitive mara, hence "of the sea".)


Connemara lies in the territory of Iar Connacht, "West Connacht", which is the portion of County Galway west of Lough Corrib. Connemara was traditionally divided into North Connemara and South Connemara. The mountains of the Twelve Bens and the Owenglin River, which flows into the sea at An Clochán/Clifden, marked the boundary between the two parts. Connemara is bounded on the west, south and north by theAtlantic Ocean. Connemara's land boundary with the rest of County Galway is marked by the Invermore River (which flows into the north ofKilkieran Bay), Loch Oorid, (which lies a few miles west of Maam Cross), and the western spine of the Maumturks mountains. In the north of the mountains, the boundary meets the sea at Killary, a few miles west of Leenaun.

Connemara is composed of the Catholic parishes of Carna, Clifden (Omey and Ballindoon), Ballynakill, Roundstone andInishbofin. The territory contains the civil parishes of Moyrus, Ballynakill, Omey, Ballindoon and Inishbofin (the last parish was for a time part of the territory of the Clann Uí Mháille, the O Malleys of the territory of Umhall, County Mayo.)


The Ó Cadhla (Kealy) clan were the rulers of Connemara up until the 13th century, when they were displaced by the O Flahertys. The latter had fled into Iar Connacht from Maigh Seoladuring the English invasion of Connacht in the early 13th century. Like the Ó Cadhla clan, the Mac Conghaile (Conneely) clan was also a branch of the Conmhaicne Mara.

The coast of Connemara consists of a number of peninsulas. The peninsula of Iorras Ainbhtheach (sometimes corrupted to Iorras Aithneach) in the south is the largest and contains the villages of Carna and Kilkieran. The peninsula of Errismore consists of the area west of the village of Ballyconneely. Errisbeg peninsula lies to the south of the village of Roundstone. The Errislannan peninsula lies just south of the town of Clifden. The peninsulas of Kingstown, Aughris, Cleggan and Renvyle are found in the north-west of Connemara. Of the numerous islands off the coast of Connemara, Inishbofin is the largest; other islands include Omey, Inishark, High Island, Friars Island, Feenish and Maínis.

The main town of Connemara is Clifden. The area around the town is rich with megalithic tombs. The famous "Connemara Green marble" is found outcropping along a line between Streamstown and Lissoughter. It was a trade treasure used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric time. It continues to be of great value today. It is available in large dimensional slabs suitable for buildings as well as for smaller pieces of jewellery. It is used for the pendant for the Scouting Ireland Chief Scout's Award, the highest award in Irish Scouting.



DK-16584 189 - ая открытка

Country: Denmark

Distance: 707 km

Travel time:  3 days



Λεμεσός, Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία

Limassol (Greek: Λεμεσός, Lemesós;, Turkish: Limasol/Leymosun) is the second-largest city in Cyprus, with a population of 228,000 (2008). It is the largest city in geographical size, and the biggest municipality on the island. The city is located onAkrotiri Bay, on the island's southern coast and it is the capital of Limassol District.

Limassol is the biggest Cypriot port in the Mediterranean transit trade. It has also become one of the most important tourism, trade and service-providing centres in the area. Limassol is renowned for its long cultural tradition, and is home to the Cyprus University of Technology. A wide spectrum of activities and a number of museums and archaeological sites are available to the interested visitor. Consequently, Limassol attracts a wide range of tourists mostly during an extended summer season to be accommodated in a wide range of hotels and apartments. A large marina is currently being constructed near the old town.

Limassol was built between two ancient cities, Amathus and Kourion, so during Byzantine rule it was known as Neapolis (new town). Limassol's tourist strip now runs east along the coast as far as Amathus. To the west of the city is the Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area, part of the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.


The town of Limassol is situated between the ancient towns of Amathus and Curium (Kourion). Limassol was probably built after Amathus had been ruined. However, the town of Limassol has been inhabited since very ancient times. Graves found there date back to 2000 BC and others date back to the 8th and 4th centuries BC. These few remains show that a small colonisation must have existed which did not manage to develop and flourish. Ancient writers mention nothing about the foundation of the town.

According to the Council of Chalcedon which took place in 451, the local bishop as well as the bishops of Amathus and Arsinoe were involved in the foundation of the city, which would be known by the names of Theodosiana and Neapolis. Bishop Leontios of Neapolis was an important church writer in the 7th century. The records of the 7th Synod (787) refer to it as the bishop’s see. The town was known as Lemesos in the 10th century.

The history of Limassol is largely known by the events associated with the Third Crusade. The king of England, Richard the Lionheart, was travelling to the Holy Land in 1191. His fiancée Berengaria and his sister Joan (Queen of Sicily), were also travelling on a different ship. Because of a storm, the ship with the queens arrived in Limassol. Isaac Comnenus, the Byzantine governor of Cyprus, was heartless and cruel, and loathed the Latins. He invited the queens ashore, with the intention of holding them to ransom, but they wisely refused. So he refused them fresh water and they had to put out to sea again or yield to capture. When Richard arrived in Limassol and met Isaac Comnenus, he asked him to contribute to the crusade for the liberation of the Holy Land. While at the beginning Isaac had accepted, he later on refused to give any help.Richard then chased him and finally arrested him; the entire island was therefore taken over by the Anglo-Normans, bringing the long Byzantine dominion of Cyprus to an end. Richard celebrated his marriage with Berengaria who had received the crown as queen of England in Cyprus. Richard destroyed Amathus and the inhabitants were transferred to Limassol.

A year later, in AD 1192, Cyprus was sold for the sum of 100,000 bezants to the Templars, rich monks and soldiers whose aim was the protection of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The knights enforced high taxes, in order to get back the money that had been given for the purchase of Cyprus. This led to the revolt of the Cypriots, who wished to get rid of the bond of the promise. Richard accepted their request and a new purchaser was found: Guy de Lusignan, a Roman Catholic from Poitou. Cyprus was therefore handed over to the French dynasty of the house of Lusignan, thus establishing the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus.

For a period of about three centuries 1192-1489, Limassol enjoyed remarkable prosperity. Cyprus was characterised by its great number of Latin bishops. This lasted until the occupation of Cyprus by the Ottomans in AD 1570. Latin battalions which established monasteries were settled down there. The settlement of merchants in Cyprus and particularly in Limassol in the 13th century led to the financial welfare of its inhabitants. Its harbour as a centre of transportation and commerce, contributed greatly to the financial and cultural development.

The War of the Lombards

Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, urged by the Templars of Cyprus who were enemies of Ibelen, arrived in Limassol and took over in the town in 1228. He then called John Ibelen to come before him, in order to discuss the plans against the Muslims. John Ibelen came before him accompanied by the under-aged King Eric and all the Templars of Cyprus. When Ibelen refused to cooperate, Frederick had no choice but to let him go. The German King took over in Limassol and in other towns. He appointed his own governors but he finally left Cyprus. The forces of Frederick were finally beaten in the battle of 1229, which took place in Agirta, a village in the Kyrenia area, between the forces of Frederick and the troops of the Franks, which were led by John Ibelen. After the end of the battle, Frederick made no further claims to the island.

Attacks from Egypt

Limassol was under attack from the Mamelukes of Egypt. The harbour of Limassol had become a refuge for the pirates who pillaged and plundered Muslim land in the Eastern Mediterranean . Thus, a military force arrived in Limassol in 1424, sent by the Mamelukes of Egypt. The Mamelukes devastated and burned Limassol. A year later, they invaded Cyprus again, this time with greater forces. They plundered Famagusta and Larnaca, and then arrived in Limassol where without any difficulty they occupied the Castle, burned many places, plundered others and then returned to Cairo. The Mamelukes caused even greater destruction in Limassol and other places in 1426. Janus, the king of Cyprus, was defeated by them in Chirokitia and was sent back to Cairo as a prisoner.

Cyprus was sold in AD 1489 to Venice by the Cypriot Queen Catherine Cornaro. The Venetians did not have Cyprus' best interest at heart, they were only interested in receiving the taxes and in exploiting the country’s resources. The Venetians destroyed the Castle of Limassol.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus in 1570-1571 and occupied it. Limassol was conquered in July 1570 without any resistance. Descriptions of different visitors inform us that the town of Limassol looked like a village with a significant population. The Christians used to live in small houses with such low doorways, that one had to bend in order to enter. This was deliberate design in order to prevent the Ottomans from to entering the houses while riding a horse.

Some neighbourhoods, mostly to the east of the city were predominantly Greek, to the west predominantly Turkish with an evenly mixed area around the castle. The church played an important role in the education of Greeks during the years 1754-1821. During those years new schools were set up in all the towns. Greek intellectuals used to teach Greek history, Turkish and French. The following schools operated in the town of Limassol:

  • The Greek School which was established in 1819.
  • The first public school which was established in 1841.
  • The Girls’ School which was established in 1861.

British administration

The British took over in Cyprus in 1878. The first British governor of Limassol was Colonel Warren. He showed a particular interest in Limassol and even from the very first days the condition of the town showed an improvement. The roads were cleaned, the animals were removed from the centre, roads were fixed, trees were planted and docks were constructed for the loading and unloading of those ships that were anchored off-shore. Lanterns for the lighting of the central areas were also installed in the 1880. In 1912, electricity replaced the old lanterns.

From the very first years of the British occupation, a post office, a telegraph office and a hospital began to operate. In 1880 the first printing pressstarted working. It was in this printing press that the newspapers «Alithia» and «Anagennisis» were published in 1897. The newspaper «Salpinx» was published at the same time.

At the end of the 19th century the very first hotels began to operate. Among these were «Europe» and «Amathus».

These changes that the British brought about contributed to the development of an intellectual and artistic life. Schools, theaters, clubs, art galleries, music halls, sport societies, football clubs etc. were all set up and meant a great deal to the cultural life of Limassol.


The first marxist groups in Cyprus formed in Limassol in the early 1920s; in 1926, the Communist party of Cyprus was formed in the city. Its successor, AKEL, has dominated municipal elections, since the first free elections in 1943, won by Ploutis Servas.

Andreas Christou, an AKEL member, was elected mayor of Limassol in December 2006 to serve a five-year term.


Limassol is famous in Cyprus for its festivals, like the Carnival and Wine Festival. The Limassol Carnival festival lasts for ten (10) days, with jolly and amusing masquerading. This custom is very old, going back to pagan rituals. With the passage of time it has acquired a different, purely entertaining character, with a large, popular following. The festival starts with the entrance parade of the King Carnival, followed by a fancy-dress competition for children. During the Carnival parade in the main streets, large crowds from all over the island gather to watch the floats with the serenade and other masqueraded groups. Many fancy-dress balls and parties take place at many hotels every night.

During the first quarter of September, the great Wine Festival of Cyprus takes place in the Limassol Municipal Garden, every evening between 8.00 hrs - 23.00 hrs.During the festival the visitor has the chance to taste some of the best Cyprus wines, which are offered free of charge. On some evenings, various groups from Cyprus and abroad perform folk dancing and there are also choirs and others.

Other festivals are Yermasogeia Flower Festival (May), Festival of the Flood (June), Shakespearean nights and Festival of Ancient Greek Drama.

Furthermore, the city of Limassol introduced the first Beer festival in July 2003. This is a three day dance festival by the sea in the heart of the city centre. Visitors can enjoy a variety of Cypriot beers and imported beers such as KEO, Heineken, Amstel and Becks. The entrance to the festival is free of charge and beers are sold at low prices, complemented by a mix of international music.

The sixth Junior Eurovision Song Contest was held in Limassol, in the Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre.



Невский проспект, Санкт-Петербург, Россия

Nevsky Avenue (Russian: Не́вский проспе́кт, Nevsky Prospekt) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Planned byPeter the Great as beginning the road to Novgorod and Moscow, the avenue runs from the Admiralty to the Moscow Railway Station and, after making a turn at Vosstaniya Square, to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The chief sights include the Rastrelliesque Stroganov Palace, the huge neoclassical Kazan Cathedral, the Art Nouveau Bookhouse (Dom Knigi), Eliseyev Emporium, half a dozen 18th-century churches, a monument to Catherine the Great, an enormous 18th-century shopping mall, a mid-19th-century department store, theRussian National Library, and the Anichkov Bridge with its horse statues. The feverish life of the avenue was described by Nikolai Gogol in his story "The Nevsky Prospekt". Fyodor Dostoevsky often employed the Nevksy Prospekt as a setting within his works, such as Crime and Punishment and The Double: A Petersburg Poem.

During the early Soviet years (1918–44) it was known as the Avenue of the 25th of October, alluding to the day of the October Revolution.

The Nevsky today functions as the main thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg. The majority of the city's shopping and nightlife, as well as the most expensive apartments, are located on or right off of the Nevsky Prospekt.

The street is served by the stations Nevsky Prospekt, Gostiny Dvor, Mayakovskaya, Ploshchad Vosstaniya and Ploshchad Aleksandra Nevskogo of Saint Petersburg Metro.

Не́вский проспе́кт — главная улица Санкт-Петербурга.

Проспект протянулся на 4,5 км от Адмиралтейства до Александро-Невской лавры. Пересекает реки Мойка (Зелёный мост),канал Грибоедова (Казанский мост), Фонтанку (Аничков мост). Наибольшая ширина составляет 60 м (у Гостиного двора), наименьшая — 25 м (у Мойки).

Правая сторона (нечётная) неофициально называется «теневой», чётная — «солнечной» (популярное место для прогулок). Участок от площади Восстания до Александро-Невской лавры также неофициально называют Старо-Невским (отчасти из-за того, что в 1730-е годы предпринималась попытка спрямить магистраль по нынешним Гончарной и Тележной улицам).

История названия

Своё современное название Невский проспект обрёл в 1781 году, произошло от названия Александро-Невской Лавры, которая носит имя национального героя, святого князя Александра Невского. До этого магистраль, соединявшая Адмиралтейство и Александро-Невскую лавру называлась сначала просто дорогой к Невскому монастырю илипершпективной дорогой к Невскому монастырю1718 года), затем сменила несколько похожих названий: Большая першпективная дорога, Большая Невская першпектива, Невская першпектива1768 года). Часть проспекта от современной площади Восстания до Александро-Невской лавры непродолжительное время (в 1753 году) носила название Старая Невская Першпективная улица. С 1781 года название Невский проспект стало официальным, хотя в 17831785 годах существовало названиеБольшой Невский проспект.


Необходимость в прокладке Невского проспекта возникла вскоре после основания Санкт-Петербурга. Единственный сухопутный путь, который связывал Адмиралтейство (промышленный центр нового города) с центральной РоссиейНовгородская дорога, от которой по берегу Невы шла тропа. Новгородская дорога проходила примерно по линии современного Лиговского проспекта до Таврического сада. Тропа пересекала Фонтанку по плотине, построенной мастером И. Матвеевым к 1705 году по прямому указанию Петра I:«Перебить тое речку».

Строительство дороги

Прокладка просек

В начале 1710-х годов был заложен монастырь (будущая Александро-Невская лавра) и рядом с ним быстро выросло поселение. Возникла необходимость связать два городских центра с Новгородским трактом, который вёл внутрь страны. По высочайшему повелению началось сооружение просеки.

В 1712 году монахи монастыря начали прокладывать дорогу от монастыря к Новгородскому тракту, к 1718 году она была завершена («…проложена и управлена.»). Для строительства просеки требовалось преодолеть болотные топи. Технология строительства была достаточно простой — валили лес, корчевали пни, для осушения болот рыли канавы и по трассе дороги укладывали фашины, засыпая их песком. О строительстве просеки от Адмиралтейства документов не сохранилось, при этом существует некоторое расхождение у городских историков.

Просеки от Адмиралтейства и от лавры вместе и образовали будущий Невский проспект. Именно тем, что две дороги прокладывались независимо друг от друга, и объясняется излом улицы в районе современной площади Восстания. По замыслу архитектора Н. Ф. Гербеля проспект стал одной из пяти лучевых улиц, расходящихся от Адмиралтейства.

Так или иначе, Невский проспект возник во второй половине 1710-х годов. Историки указывают, что два отрезка Невского проспекта изначально не были связаны между собой — просеки вышли к Новгородской дороге в разных точках. Есть мнение о том, что более трудный участок («монастырский») был пройден первым.

Проспект сразу стал крупной востребованной магистралью и, после наведения мостов через водные преграды, полностью заменил старую тропу. Зелёный мост через Мойку был наведён в 1720 (возможно в 17171718 годах). Мост был деревянный, подъёмной конструкции. Переправа являлась городской границей в 1703-1726 годах, здесь собирались подати, для этого стоял Мытный двор, рядом с которым находился Гостиный двор.

Ещё раньше был построен мост через Фонтанку, в 1715 году император Пётр I издал указ: «За Большою Невой на Фонтанной реке по першпективе зделать мост». К маю 1716 года работы уже были закончены и деревянный балочный многопролётный мост на свайных опорах, перекрыл как сам проток, так и заболоченную пойму. C 1726 года сюда была перенесена городская граница, была построена караульная будка.

Благоустройство проспекта

В 1721 году начальный участок, проходящий по Адмиралтейскому лугу, был обсажен с обеих сторон рядами берёз, образовавшими аллею. В 1720-х годах дорога была благоустроена: были высажены четыре ряда берёз по сторонам дороги, эти деревья регулярно подстригались. В этот же период дорогу замостили камнем, её содержали в чистоте пленные шведы. С 1723 года проспект первым в России получил уличное освещение: были установлены масляные фонари, позже под ними были установлены скамейки для отдыха прохожих.

Сохранилось описание этой аллеи, выполненное в 1721 году камер-юнкером в свите герцога Карла-Фридриха Голштейн Готторпского:


Около шести вечера прибыли мы благополучно в Петербург, который со времени моего отъезда оттуда так изменился, что я вовсе не узнал его. С самого начала мы въехали в длинную и широкую аллею, вымощенную камнем, и по справедливости названную проспектом, потому что конца ее почти не видно. Она проложена только за несколько лет и исключительно руками пленных шведов. Несмотря на то, что деревья, посаженные по обеим ее сторонам в три или четыре ряда, еще невелики, она необыкновенно красива по своему огромному протяжению и чистоте, в которой ее содержат (пленные шведы должны каждую субботу чистить ее), и она делает чудесный вид, какого я нигде не встречал. На Адмиралтействе, красивом и огромном здании, находящемся в конце этой дороги, устроен прекрасный и довольно высокий шпиц, который выходит прямо против проспекта

— Фридрих-Вильгельм фон Берхгольц. Запись в дневнике от 23 июня (4 июля) 1721 года

На этом строительство проспекта не закончилось. В 1723 году Пётр I приказал «проложить от соборной церкви к Адмиралтейству дорогу першпективно». Дорога должна была упираться в вертикальную доминанту — Троицкий собор Александро-Невского монастыря. По ряду причин не удалось реализовать ни одну из этих идей — собор не стал доминантой и дорога не была спрямлена. Но к спрямлению улицы вернулись в 1730-х годах и проходила по трассе Гончарной и Тележной улиц. Тогда, в связи с этими работами у участка проспекта появилось название Старо-Невский. Позже, в 1760-х годах произошло объединение двух направлений и Невский проспект получил современный вид. Эта улица имела длину около четырёх вёрст и ширину около девяти саженей.

В 1726 году Невский проспект был упомянут в сенатском указе:

Всегда, как приезд так и выезд чужестранным и российским подданным отовсюду в Санкт-Петербург имеется

В 1732 году Невский проспект снова стал центральной улицей столицы, его привели в порядок и подновили благоустройство.

Проведение праздников

Невский проспект, являясь центральной городской улицей, является местом проведения всех городских праздничных мероприятий. Обычно на части проспекта от начала до реки Фонтанки закрывается автомобильное движение в Новый год, День Победы и День города.

Одним из первых таких мероприятий стало возвращение в Санкт-Петербург двора Анны Иоанновны в 1732 году, который возвращался в Санкт-Петербург после четырёхлетнего пребывания в Москве. Проспект подновили и построили на нём две триумфальные арки, само мероприятие было достаточно помпезным.

См. также: Перенос столицы России из Москвы в Санкт-Петербург при Анне Иоанновне|Перенос столицы России из Москвы в Санкт-Петербург (1730-е)|Перенос столицы России из Москвы в Санкт-Петербург при Анне Иоанновне

Современный Невский проспект украшают практически во все государственные праздники, в том числе и в День народного единства.

Застройка проспекта

Вся застройка теневой стороны начала XVIII века была уничтожена пожаром 1736 года. После этого согласно решениям комиссии о Санкт-Петербургском строении деревянных домов на Невском больше не строили, и с 1766 года на проспекте строились только каменные дома.

В XVIII веке начало перспективы, которую открывал первый Зимний дворец (ныне дома 11—15) застраивалась дворцами знати, многие из которых сохранились до сих пор:Строгановский дворец, дом Чичерина, Аничков дворец, в конце XVIII века начал возводиться дворец Белосельских-Белозерских. На правой стороне появились католическая церковь Святой Екатерины, Армянская церковь. В 1761—1785 годах построен Гостиный двор, превративший проспект в торговый центр города.

К началу XIX века в целом сложился облик Невского проспекта. В 1801 году на углу Садовой улицы построено здание Публичной библиотеки, в 17991804 годах — здание Городской думы.

В 1804—1806 годах воздвигнут дом Чаплиных (дом 13), в 1801—1811 годах — Казанский собор (вместе с ним сформировалась Казанская площадь). В 1800—1819 годах между Полицейским (ныне Зелёным) и Аничковым мостами устроен бульвар, в 1830-х годах на Невском проспекте сооружена торцовая мостовая, просуществовавшая до 1930-х годов. В 1820-х годах построен дом Сухозанета (дом 70), в 1830-х годах — здание банка (дом 38, архитектор К. И. Росси), в 1831—1833 — дом Голландской церкви(дом 20), где в 1839 году помещалась редакция журнала «Отечественные записки», в 1833—1838 годах — Лютеранская кирха святого Петра (между домами 22—24). В 1846 году сооружено здание «Пассажа» (дом 48), в 1800 году — дворец Белосельских-Белозерских (дом 41; перестроен в 1846). С постройкой в 1851 году Николаевского (нынеМосковского) вокзала возникла Знаменская площадь, которая вот уже 90 с лишним лет называется площадью Восстания в честь событий Февральской революции и является важным архитектурно-композиционным узлом города.

В первой половине XIX века проводятся работы по благоустройству проспекта. В 1832 году его от Адмиралтейства до реки Фонтанки мостят торцом. В 1839 году участок от Адмиралтейства до Литейного проспекта начали освещать газовыми фонарями. От Знаменской площади вдоль проспекта в 1843 году началось регулярное движение омнибусов. В 1863 году по Невскому проспекту была пущена конка. 30 декабря 1883 года проспект получил электрическое освещение. В конце XIX — начале XX веков на Невском проспекте строились здания банков, правлений акционерных обществ, торговых фирм, многие двухэтажные дома надстроены до четырёх-пяти этажей. В 1901—1903 году сооружён дом Торгового товарищества «Братья Елисеевы» (дом 56/8), в 1902—1904 годах — дом компании «Зингер» (ныне «Дом книги»).

В декабре 1907 года по Невскому проспекту открыто движение трамваев.

В 1911—1912 годах построены дом Вавельберга (дом 7/9) и торговый дом Мертенса (дом 21).

Советское время

В 1918 году большевики переименовывают Невский проспект в проспект 25 Октября, однако новое название не приживалось среди жителей, все по прежнему называли его Невским проспектом.

В 1936 году по проспекту 25 Октября, покрытому асфальтом, пошли первые в городе троллейбусы.

В 1939 году была построена школа № 210 (дом 14).

В период блокады район Невского проспекта подвергался интенсивным бомбардировкам и артобстрелам (в память о подвиге ленинградцев на фасаде дома 14 сохранилась надпись: «Граждане! При артобстреле эта сторона улицы наиболее опасна!»). В конце 40-х — начале 50-х годов повреждённые и разрушенные здания восстановлены.

13 января 1944 года перед окончательным снятием блокады Ленинграда по просьбе жителей многим улицам были возвращены исторические названия, в том числе и Невскому проспекту.

В 1950-51 годах на проспект вышли две тысячи строителей, чтобы провести большие капитальные работы. С проспекта были сняты трамвайные пути, приведено в порядок подземное хозяйство (водопровод, система водоотведения, газовые магистрали, телефонные и электрические кабели), заменена осветительная арматура, значительно расширены тротуары, проезжая часть покрыта асфальтобетоном.

В 1951—1952 годах был построен дом № 107 (архитекторы В. Ф. Белов, Е. М. Лавровская). С 1960-х годов многие здания по Невскому проспекту капитально отремонтированы или отреставрированы.

В 1955 году открыта первая на проспекте станция метро — «Площадь Восстания» в составе первой очереди Ленинградского метрополитена. 1 июля 1963 год открыта станцияметро «Невский проспект».

В мае 1985 года на площади Восстания состоялось торжественное открытие мемориального Обелиска «Городу-герою Ленинграду» (архитекторы В. С. Лукьянов и А. И. Алымов).

Невский проспект получил достойное композиционное завершение своего трёхкилометрового участка. Как писал в «Арабесках» Н. В. Гоголь: «… пусть на одной и той же улице возвышается … и круглая колонна и угловатый обелиск».

Снос домов на Невском

Снос домов на Невском проспекте начался в начале XXI века. Осенью 2007 года, при проведении марша в защиту Петербурга известный реставратор Д. А. Бутырин высказал сравнение «за всю войну на Невском проспекте были разрушены только два дома, а за последние годы — шесть».

При нынешнем губернаторе В. И. Матвиенко несколько зданий на Невском были снесены (на углу с улицей Восстания, вокруг гостиницы «Невский Палас»). Вместоаутентичной рядовой дореволюционной застройки, находящейся под охраной ЮНЕСКО, город получит новоделы.


26 мая 2008 года по итогам заседания в Смольном, посвящённому проекту программы развития наземного электрического транспорта до 2012 года, на Невском проспекте было решено выделить полосу для движения общественного транспорта. За месяц до планируемого ремонта на Невском проспекте было заменено асфальтовое покрытие. В декабре 2008 года выделенная полоса начала действовать.

Невский проспект в культуре

Нет ничего лучше Невского проспекта, по крайней мере в Петербурге; для него он составляет всё. Чем не блестит эта улица — красавица нашей столицы! Я знаю, что ни один из бледных и чиновных её жителей не променяет на все блага Невского проспекта. Не только кто имеет двадцать пять лет от роду, прекрасные усы и удивительно сшитый сюртук, но даже тот, у кого на подбородке выскакивают белые волоса и голова гладка, как серебряное блюдо, и тот в восторге от Невского проспекта. А дамы! О, дамам ещё больше приятен Невский проспект. Да и кому же он не приятен? Едва только взойдешь на Невский проспект, как уже пахнет одним гуляньем. Хотя бы имел какое-нибудь нужное, необходимое дело, но, взошедши на него, верно, позабудешь о всяком деле. Здесь единственное место, где показываются люди не по необходимости, куда не загнала их надобность и меркантильный интерес, объемлющий весь Петербург.

Н. В.  Гоголь, «Невский проспект», 1833—1834

Давно стихами говорит Нева.
Страницей Гоголя ложится Невский.
Весь Летний сад — Онегина глава.
О Блоке вспоминают Острова,
А по Разъезжей бродит Достоевский.

С. Я. Маршак, «Всё то, чего коснётся человек...», 1941—1946

  • Невский связан и с именем А. С. Пушкина — на углу Невского и набережной Мойки находилась знаменитая кондитерская Вольфа и Беранже, куда поэт заезжал перед дуэлью с Дантесом.
  • Невский проспект связан с отечественной культурой и тем, что именно здесь начала развиваться книготорговля. В 1820-е на Невском, 22 открылась знаменитая книжная лавка А. Ф. Смирдина, затем — лавка И. В. Слёнина (в 1823—1829 она помещалась на Невском, 30, с 1829 — на Невском, 27). Велась книготорговля и в Большом Гостином дворе. В Советское время традиции литературной жизни на главной улице города продолжались и развивались. В бывшем здании торгового дома Зингер был открыт Лениградский дом книги, на верхних этажах которого разместились книжные редакции. До войны там находилось детское издательство, организованное Маршаком



DE-984460 188 - ая открытка

Country: Germany

Distance: 907 km

Travel time:  6 days



NL-716795 187 - ая открытка

Country: Netherlands

Distance: 1,128 km

Travel time:  11 days

On postcard: Roggel

Roggel is a village in the Dutch province of Limburg. It is located in the municipality of Leudal.

The former municipality of Roggel merged in 1991 with Neer. The new municipality was initially named "Roggel", but changed its name in 1993 to Roggel en Neer. In 2007 Roggel en Neer became part of the new municipality of Leudal.



US-1204314 186 - ая открытка

Country: USA

Distance: 6,715 km

Travel time:  10 days

On postcard: Scranton, Pennsylvania

Scranton is a city in the northeastern part of Pennsylvania, United States. It is the county seat of Lackawanna County and the largest principal city in the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre metropolitan area. Scranton had a total population of 76,089 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, making it Pennsylvania's sixth-most-populous city after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, and Reading.

Scranton is the geographic and cultural center of the Lackawanna River valley. It is the largest city located in a contiguous quilt-work of former anthracite coal mining communities including the smaller cities of Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, and Carbondale. Scranton was incorporated as a borough on February 14, 1856, and as a city on April 23, 1866.

Humble beginnings (1776–1845)

Present-day Scranton and the surrounding area had been inhabited by the native Lenape tribe, from whose language "Lackawanna" (or "le-can-hanna", meaning "stream that forks") is derived. Gradually, settlers from New England came to the area in the late 18th century, establishing mills and other small businesses, and their village became known as Slocum Hollow. Isaac Tripp, known as the first settler, built his home here in 1778, which still stands in the Providence section of the city as a testament to this era.

Industrial foundation established: iron, coal and railroads (1846–1899)

Though anthracite coal was being mined in Carbondale to the north and Wilkes-Barre to the south, the industries that precipitated the city's growth were iron and steel. Iron T-rails were first manufactured in America at the Montour Iron Works in Danville, Pennsylvania, on October 8, 1845. Prior to that they were made in England and shipped overseas. In 1840, brothers Selden T. andGeorge W. Scranton founded what would become the Lackawanna Steel Company. The company began producing iron T-rails in 1847 for the Erie Railroad in New York state. Soon after, Scranton became a major producer of these rails. The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&W) was founded in 1851 by the Scrantons to transport iron and coal products from the Lackawanna valley. The Pennsylvania Coal Company built a gravity railroad here for this purpose as well. In 1856, the Borough of Scranton was officially incorporated and named after its industrious founders. The Delaware and Hudson (D&H) Canal Company, which had its own gravity railroad from Carbondale to Honesdale, built a steam railroad that entered Scranton in 1863.

Scranton was incorporated as a city of 35,000 in 1866 in Luzerne County when the surrounding boroughs of Hyde Park (now part of the city's West Side) and Providence (now part of North Scranton) were merged with Scranton. The city became the county seat of the newly formed Lackawanna County in 1878. The nation's first successful, continuously operating electrified streetcar (trolley) system was established in the city in 1886, giving it the nickname "The Electric City". In the late 1890s Scranton was home to a series of early International League baseball teams. By 1890, three other railroads had built lines to tap into the rich supply of coal in and around the city, including the Erie Railroad, theCentral Railroad of New Jersey and finally the New York, Ontario and Western Railway (NYO&W). Underneath the city, a network of coal veins was mined by workers who were given jobs by the wealthy coal barons with low pay, long hours and unsafe working conditions. Children as young as 8 or 9 worked 14-hour days separating slate from coal in the breakers.

Growth and prosperity (1900–1945)

By the United States Census of 1900, the population of Scranton was about 102,026, making it the 38th largest city in the United States.

The turn of the 20th century saw many beautiful homes of Victorian architecture built in the Hill and Green Ridge sections of the city. In 1901, the dwindling local iron ore supply took the Lackawanna Steel Company away to Lackawanna, New York, where iron ore from Minnesota was more readily available by ships on the Great Lakes. The city lost the industry on which it was founded.

Scranton forged ahead as the center of Pennsylvania's anthracite coal industry. During the first half of the 20th century, it became home to many groups of newly arrived immigrants fromEastern Europe. This patchwork still survives and is represented by the Catholic and Orthodox churches that primarily dot the North Scranton, West Side, and South Side neighborhoods of the city; a substantial Jewish community was established as well. In 1903, an electric interurban railroad known as the Laurel Line was started, and two years later connected to nearby Wilkes-Barre, 20 miles (32 km) to the southwest. Working conditions for miners were improved by the efforts of labor leaders like John Mitchell, who is honored with a statue on the downtown Courthouse Square.

Starting the early 1920s, the Scranton Button Company (founded in 1885 and a major maker of shellac buttons) became one of the primary makers of phonograph records. They pressed records for Emerson (whom they bought in 1924), as well as Regal, Cameo, Romeo, Banner, Domino, Conqueror, and after merging with Regal, Cameo, Banner, and the US branch ofPathe (makers of Pathe and Perfect) in July, 1929, became the American Record Corporation. From that point until 1938, Scranton also added Brunswick, Melotone, and Vocalion to their production schedule. In 1946, the company was acquired by Capitol (who continued to produce Capitol Records through the end of the vinyl era).

By the mid-1930s, the city population had swelled to over 140,000 due to the extensive growth of the mining and silk textile industries. World War II created a great demand for energy, which was satisfied by expanded strip mining operations throughout the area.

The end of an era (1946–1984)

After World War II, coal lost favor to oil and natural gas. While some U.S. cities prospered in the post-war boom, the fortunes and population of Scranton (and the rest of Lackawanna and Luzerne Counties) began to diminish. Coal production and rail traffic declined rapidly throughout the 1950s. In 1952, the Laurel Line ceased passenger service. The Scranton Transit Company, whose trolleys had given the city its nickname, transferred all operations to buses as the 1954 holiday season approached. In 1955, some eastern and southern parts of the city were destroyed by the floods of Hurricane Diane, and 80 lives were lost. The NYO&W Railroad, which depended heavily on its Scranton branch for freight traffic, was abandoned in 1957.

The Knox Mine Disaster of January 1959 all but erased the mining industry in Northeastern Pennsylvania. The event eliminated thousands of jobs as the waters of the Susquehanna River flooded the mines. The DL&W Railroad, nearly bankrupt by the drop in coal traffic and the effects of Hurricane Diane, merged with the Erie Railroad in 1960. Scranton had been the hub of its operations until the Erie Lackawanna merger, when it was no longer needed in this capacity; it was another severe blow to the labor market. Mine subsidence was a spreading problem in the city as pillar supports in abandoned mines began to fail; cave-ins sometimes consumed entire blocks of homes. The area was then scarred by abandoned coal mining structures, strip mines, and massive culm dumps. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silk and other textile industries shrunk as jobs moved south or overseas.

There were some small bright spots during the era. In 1962, businessman Alex Grass opened his first "Thrif D Discount Center" drugstore on Lackawanna Avenue in downtown Scranton. The 17-by-75-foot (5 by 23 m) store, an immediate success, was the progenitor of the Rite Aid drugstore chain.

During the 1970s and 1980s, many downtown storefronts and theaters became vacant as suburban shopping malls became the dominant venues for shopping and entertainment.

Stabilization and restoration (1985–present)

There has been an emphasis on revitalization since the mid-1980s. Local government and much of the community at large have adopted a renewed interest in the city's buildings and history. Aged and empty properties are being redesigned and marketed as tourist attractions. The Steamtown National Historic Site captures the area's once-prominent position in the railroad industry. The former DL&W train station was restored as the Radisson Lackawanna Station Hotel. The Electric City Trolley Museum was created next to the DL&W yards that the Steamtown NHS occupies. Other attractions responsible for recent popularity and favorable attention to the Scranton area include the Snö Mountain ski resort (formerly Montage Mountain), the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, AHL affiliate of the Pittsburgh Penguins, the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees (formerly the Red Barons), AAA affiliate of the New York Yankees, and their PNC Field, and the Toyota Pavilion at Montage Mountain concert venue.

Landmarks and attractions

The Steamtown National Historic Site showcases steam era railroading that gives visitors tours through Scranton and portions of the Pocono Mountains.

Many of Scranton's attractions celebrate its heritage as an industrial center in iron and coal production as well as its ethnic diversity. The Scranton Iron Furnaces are remnants of the city's founding industry and of the Scranton family's Lackawanna Steel Company. The Steamtown National Historic Site seeks to preserve the history of steam locomotives. The Electric City Trolley Museumpreserves and operates pieces of Pennsylvania streetcar history. The Lackawanna Coal Mine Tour at McDade Park is open for those who desire to learn about the history of mining and railroads in the Scranton area. The tours are conducted inside a part of a former working mine.  The DL&W Passenger Station is now a Radisson hotel with dining and banquet and conference facilities called Radisson Lackawanna Station Hotel.

Museums in Scranton include the Everhart Museum in Nay Aug Park, which houses a collection of "natural history, science and art" exhibits and the Houdini Museum features films, exhibits, and a stage show. It is housed in a unique, century-old building. Terence Powderly's house, still a private dwelling, is one of the city's many historic buildings and the city's other National Historic Landmark besides Steamtown. Tripp House was built by the Tripp family in 1771 and is the oldest building in the city.

The city's religious history is evident in the Basilica of the National Shrine of St. Ann which draws thousands of pilgrims to its annualnovena and St. Stanislaus Cathedral which is the national seat of the Polish National Catholic Church in North America. The history of the founding of this denomination is intricately tied with Polish immigration to Scranton in the late 19th century.

Since the 1970s, Scranton has been the home to La Festa Italiana, a three day Italian festival, which takes place every Labor Day weekend on the courthouse square. The festival originally took place around Columbus Day, but was moved to Labor Day because of the cold weather that Scranton receives in October.

Scranton's large Irish population is represented in the annual Saint Patrick's Day Parade, first held in 1862. It is organized by the St. Patrick's Day Parade Association of Lackawanna County and is now the nation's fourth largest in attendance and second largest in per capita attendance. Over 8,000 people participate on the Saturday before Saint Patrick's Dayincluding floats, bagpipe players, high school bands and Irish groups. In 2008, crowds estimated as high as 150,000 people congregated downtown for the event.

For recreational opportunities, there is Snö Mountain Ski Resort (formerly called "Montage Mountain"), which rivals the numerous resorts of the Poconos in popularity and offers a relatively comprehensive range of difficulty levels. The 26.2-mile (42.2 km) Steamtown Marathon has been held each October since 1996 and finishes in downtown Scranton. Nay Augpark is the largest of several parks in Scranton and was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in Manhattan, New York City. The city is the home of Electric Theatre Company, a professional Equity theatre with a nine month season.

The Toyota Pavilion at Montage Mountain, a partially covered amphitheater seating 17,500, is Scranton's primary concert venue. In the summer months, musical artists ranging fromJames Taylor to Dave Matthews Band perform. Scranton Cultural Center at the Masonic Temple is an impressive piece of architecture which houses several auditoriums and a large ballroom. It plays host to the Northeast Philharmonic, Broadway Theater and other touring performances.

Cooper's Seafood House, formerly the Erie Train Station, has been in business for over sixty years on North Washington Avenue.



Paris, République française


france stamp

FI-1144701 185 - ая открытка

Country: Finland

Distance: 545 km

Travel time:  6 days



RO-29421 184 - ая открытка

Country: Romania

Distance: 1,303 km

Travel time:  7 days

On postcard: The Danube Delta

The Danube Delta (Romanian: Delta Dunării ; Ukrainian: Дельта Дунаю, Del'ta Dunaju) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the DanubeDelta lies in Romania (Tulcea county), while its northern part, on the left bank of the Chilia arm, is situated in Ukraine (Odessa Oblast). The approximate surface is 4152 km², of which 3446 km² are in Romania. If the lagoons of Razim-Sinoe (1015 km² of which 865 km² water surface; situated in the south, but attached to the Danube Delta from geological and ecological perspectives, as well as being the combined territory of the World Heritage Site) are to be added, the considered area of the Danube Delta grows to 5165 km².

The modern Danube Delta began forming after 4,000 B.C. in a gulf of the Black Sea, when the sea rose to its present level. A sandy barrier blocked the Danube gulf where the river initially built its delta. Upon filling the gulf with sediments, the delta advanced outside the barrier-blocked estuary after 3,500 B.C. building several successive lobes: the St. George I (3,500-1,600 B.C.), the Sulina (1,600-0 B.C.), the St. George II (0 B.C.-Present) and the Chilia or Kilia (1600 A.D.-Present).

The Danube Delta is a low alluvial plain, mostly covered by wetlands and water. It consists of an intricate pattern of marshes, channels, streamlets and lakes. The average altitude is 0.52 m, with 20% of the territory below sea level, and more than half not exceeding one meter in altitude. Dunes on the most extensive strandplains of the delta (Letea and Caraorman strandplains) stand higher (12.4 m and 7 m respectively). The largest lakes are Dranov (21.7 km²), Roşu (14.5 km²), Gorgova (13.8 km²).

Distributaries of the Danube

The Danube branches into three main distributaries into the delta, Chilia, Sulina, and Sfântul Gheorghe (Saint George). The last two branches form the Tulcea channel, which continues as a single body for several kilometers after the separation from the Chilia. At the mouths of each channel gradual formation of new land takes place, as the delta continues to expand.

Chilia, in the north, the longest, youngest, and most vigorous, with two secondary internal deltas and one microdelta in full process of formation at its mouth (to Ukraine).

Sulina, the central and thus the shortest arm, which consequently led to its extensive use for traffic and severe transformation. At its mouth is located the main port and the single settlement with urban charactersitics of the Romanian part of the delta. Because of the alluvium deposited at its mouth, a channel gradually advancing into the sea (presently it has 10 km), was built in order to protect the navigation.

Sfântul Gheorghe (Saint George in English), in the south, is the oldest and more sparsely populated. Its alluvium has led to the creation, beginning with 1897, of the Sacalin islands, which as of today measure 19 km in length.


The climate of the Danube Delta is continental with strong influences from the vicinity of the Black Sea and its prevalent amphibian environment. It is the driest and sunniest region (70 days with blue sky, 2500 hours of sunshine/year) of Romania. The mean annual temperature is 11°C (-1°C in January and 22°C in July), with mean precipitation between 400and 300 mm/year, decreasing from west to east. The evaporation is around 1000 mm/year, favorized and amplified by the strong and frequent winds, resulting in long periods of drought in the summer. The northwest winds cause frequent storms in spring and autumn. In the interior of the delta the continental character of the climate is very pronounced.

Main ecosystems

he Danube Delta falls within east European steppe ecosystem, with Mediterranean influences. As a young region in full process of consolidation, the Danube Delta represents a very favourable place for the development of highly diverse flora and fauna, unique in Europe, with numerous rare species. It hosts 23 natural ecosystems, but due to the extent of wetlands the aquatic environment is prevalent; the terrestrial environment is also present on the higher grounds of the continental levees, where xerophile ecosystems have developed. Between the aquatic and terrestrial environments, is interposed a swampy, easily flooded strip of original flora and fauna, with means of adaptation for water or land, depending on the season or the hydrological regime. At the contact between freshwater and sea water, some special physical, chemical and biological processes take place, which determined biologists to consider this area as a very different ecosystem called beforedelta. Musura Gulf, north of Sulina, and Saint George Gulf are considered the most representative for this type of ecosystem.

Situated on major migratory routes, and providing adequate conditions for nesting and hatching, the Danube Delta is a magnet for birds from six major eco-regions of the world, including the Mongolian, Arctic and Siberian. There are over 320 species of birds found in the delta during summer, of which 166 are hatching species and 159 are migratory. Over one million individuals (swans, wild ducks, bald coots, etc.) winter here.

Ecosystems of running water

It comprises the Danube arms, as well as a series of more important streamlets and channels. It is an environment rich in plankton, worms,mollusca, ephemerides, grubs, spongiae, with numerous species of fish, such as the carp, pike perch, sheat fish, and freshwater sturgeons(sterlet, Vyza and Danube mackerel).

Ecosystem of stagnant water

Includes the lakes, to which various ponds, streamlets and channels are added. They are characterized by a rich floating and submerse flora (Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Vallisneria etc. under the water; Nymphaea alba, Nuphar luteum, Trapa natans, Alisma plantago etc., floating plants with roots near the lakes borders; Salvinia natans, Stratiotes aloides, Spirogyra etc., floating plants without roots, having negative effects for the aquatic bioproductivity). Of the fish, the most important are Tinca tinca, Abramis brama, Scardinius erytrophalmus, Carassius auratus gibelio, Silurus glanis, Perca fluviatilis, Esox lucius etc.

Ecosystems of marshy and flooding areas

The reed plats and floating reed islands (called plaur in Romania) are the most common and well known components of the Danube Delta. Vegetation of this ecosystem consists of common reed (Phragmites communis), and near river banks mace reed (Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia), sedge (Carex dioica, Carex stricta), Dutch rush (Scirpus radicans, Scirpus lacustris), brook mint (Mentha aquatica) etc. They constitute ideal spawning and nestling grounds. The plaur is a mixture of reed roots, grass and soil, usually floating or anchored on the bottom. As a rule, the reed surrounds the lakes and ponds, slowly invading the water surface. This type of ecosystem is noted for the variety and large populations of birds, some of them very rare. The most important are the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula, red crested pochard (Netta rufina), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Greylag goose (Anser anser), Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus), purple heron (Ardea purpurea), Great white egret (Egretta alba), little egret (Egretta garzetta), Spoon bill (Platalea leucorodia), White pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), Mute swan (Cygnus olor), Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus). A recent and welcomed spreading has the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Among the mammals, there is the otter (Lutra lutra), mink (Mustela lutreola), little ermine (Mustela erminea aestiva), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wild cat (Felis silvestris), and in the winter, the hare (Lepus europaeus), and on the brink of disappearing from the delta, the wolf and the fox. The enot dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), bizam (Onda zibethica), and to some extent nutria (Myocastor coypus) are recent species successfully adapted.

River banks and levees ecosystems

The firm land of the delta used to be covered with large groves of willow trees, cut almost entirely and replaced with Canadian poplars. On the riverbanks kept in natural state, small groves of willow trees (Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Salix petandra, Salix triandra etc.) can still be found, mixed with white poplar (Populus alba). Occasionally, the willow trees form corridors along the Danubes arms and bigger channels. On the levees of Letea and Caraorman, mixed forests of oaks (Quercus robur, Quercus pedunculiflora) with various trees (Fraxinus pallisae, Ulmus foliacea, Populus tremula), shrubs (Prunus spinosa, Crataegus monogyna, Rosa canina, Berberis vulgaris etc.), and vines (Vitis sylvestris, Hedera helix,Humulus lupulus, Periploca graeca, which reaches up to 25m) grow on sand dunes. On the Letea levee, these exotic looking forests grow especially in the depressions between the sand dunes, in small groves called hasmace. Fauna of this region includes Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), etc.


The Danube Delta is perhaps the least inhabited region of temperate Europe. In the Romanian side live about 20,000 people, of which 4,600 in the port of Sulina, which gives an average density of approx. 2 inhabitants per km². The rest is scattered in 27 villages, of which only three, all situated marginally, have more than 500 people (2002). The city of Tulcea, at the western edge of the delta, has a population of 92,000 (2002). It represents the node of the region and the gate to the delta.

The acute isolation and the harsh conditions of living, based mainly on subsistence, made the Danube Delta a place of emigration, or at least of transit. Very few of the people born here stay through adulthood; at the same time, the origins of the inhabitants fall within a wide range, as people from the most various places of Romania can be found in the delta. The total population has somewhat remained constant throughout the 20th century; there were 12,000 inhabitants in the 1890s, and 14,000 before the Second World War. Romanianscount for approximately 80%, and Ukrainians for 10%. Other people living in the delta include Greeks, Turks and Bulgarians (1992). Distinctive for the region, but very vague as an ethnic entity are the Lipovans, descendants of the Orthodox Old Rite followers who fledRussia in the 18th century from religious persecution. About a third of the employed population is engaged in fishing and pisciculture, while another third is engaged in farming (1996). However, the quasi-totality practice fishing, more or less legally, as a means of subsistence or extra money.

In the Ukrainian side, located at the northern edge of the delta, the town of Izmail has a population of 85,000, Kiliya, 21,800 and Vilkovo, the main center of Lipovan community, 9,300.


Recorded history first noted the Delta under Dacian control before being conquered by the Romans. After invasion by the Goths the region changed hands many times. During the 15th century, the Danube Delta became part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1812, following theRusso-Turkish War the borders of Ottoman and Russian Empires were set by Kilia and Old Stambul Channels of Danube, and in 1829 by St George Channel. The Treaty of Paris of 1856, which ended the Crimean War, assigned the Danube Delta to the Ottoman Empire andestablished an international commission which made a series of works to help navigation. In 1878, following the defeat of Ottoman Empireby Russia and Romania, the border between those two was set by the Kilia and Old Stambul Channels.

In 1991, the Romanian part of the Danube Delta became part of the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Around 2,733 km² of the delta are strictly protected areas.

In 1998, under UNESCO Programme on Man and the Biosphere, the 6264.03 km² of Danube Delta were established as Biosphere Reserve shared by Romania and Ukraine.

Historically, in Romania, part of Danube Delta was marked as a reserve back in 1938.

In Ukraine, the Danube branch of Black Sea State Reserve was established in 1973. In 1981 it was reorganized into Natural Reserve "Danube Fluxes", and in 1998 it was extended into Danube Biosphere Reserve.

Environment and issues

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Large-scale works began in the Danube Delta as early as the second half of the 19th century. First corrections of the Sulina arm began in 1862, and they continued throughout the 20th century. As a result, the length of the Sulina arm was reduced from 92 to 64 km, and its flow more than doubled, thus making it suitable for large-vessel navigation. Correcting the six large meanders on its course thereby reduced the length of the Sfântu Gheorghe from 108 km to 108, and its flow also increased somewhat. Both these increases were made to the detriment of the Chilia arm, which as of present remains the most unspoiled arm of the main three. These corrections, as well as the digging of various secondary channels throughout the body of the delta, have had a serious impact on the ecosystem. Natural environments have been altered, the breeding pattern of fish has been disrupted, and the flows in the main arms have increased, with serious consequences regarding the discharge of the alluvia and the erosion of the banks.

Reed was intensively harvested during the Communist era. The regime had plans of transforming the delta into a large agro-industrial zone. Although the first modern agricultural exploitation dates from 1939 (Ostrovul Tãtaru), only after 1960 were large areas drained and converted, to the detriment of wetlands. As of 1991 agricultural land in the delta surpassed 100,000 hectares, and more than a third of its surface has been affected by crop cultivation, forest plantation, or pisciculture arrangements. As a result of these changes, as well as the increasing pollution and eutrophication of the Danube waters, and decades of exploitation and poor regulations of fishing, the fish population has been visibly reduced.

In 2004, Ukraine inaugurated work on the Bistroe Channel that would provide an additional navigable link from the Black Sea to the populous Ukrainian section of the Danube Delta. However, because of the negative impact which this new channel may have upon the fragile ecosystem of the Delta, the European Union advised Ukraine to shut down the works. Romanian officials threatened to sue Ukraine at the International Court of Justice. Under the presidency of Kuchma Ukraine had responded that Romania is just afraid of the competition that the new channel will bring, and continued working on the channel. Under the presidency of Yuschenko, who visited Romania in 2005, both sides agree that professionals should decide the fate of the channel. In the long-run, Ukraine plans to build a navigation channel, if not through Bistroe Channel then through another channel.Postcards3