GB-299269 406 - ая открытка

Country: United Kingdom

Distance: 1,551 km

Travel time:  11 days

On postcard: Sussex

Sussex ( abbreviated Sx), from the Old English Sūþsēaxe ('South Saxons'), is an historic county in South EastEngland corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded on the north by Surrey, east by Kent, south by the English Channel, and west by Hampshire, and is divided for local government into West Sussex and East Sussex and the city of Brighton and Hove. The city of Brighton & Hove was created a unitary authority in 1997, and was granted City status in 2000. Until then Chichester had been Sussex's only city.

Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each orientated approximately east to west. In the south-west of the county lies the fertile and densely-populated coastal plain. North of this lie the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond which lies the well-wooded Sussex Weald.

The name 'Sussex' derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded by Ælle of Sussex in 477 AD, which in 825 was absorbed into the kingdom of Wessex and the later kingdom of England. The region's roots go back further to the location of some of Europe's earliesthominid finds at Boxgrove. Sussex has been a key location for England's major invasions, including the Roman invasion of Britainand the Battle of Hastings.

The appellation Sussex remained in use as a ceremonial county until 1974, when the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex. The whole of Sussex has had a single police force since 1968.


The flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets on a blue background. Officially recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the coat of arms of Sussex which first appeared in an atlas by John Speed in 1622. The significance of the six martlets may be to represent the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes.

Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex, composed by William Ward-Higgs in 1907, perhaps originally from the lyrics of Rudyard Kipling's poem entitled Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county including those at Lewes Bonfire and at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club.

The county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages.

Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning 'we will not be pushed around' and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women. The round-headed rampion, also known as the 'Pride of Sussex', was adopted as Sussex'scounty flower in 2002.



The physical geography of Sussex relies heavily on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline. The major features of that are the high lands which cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself, and the South Downs. The former consists of clays and sands; the latter chalk. Between those two ridges, mainly in West Sussex, lies the "Vale of Sussex"; at the eastern end of the county is the valley of the River Rother, which flows into what was a long sea inlet to reach the sea at Rye Bay.

The Weald

The Weald is what remains of the vast forest that existed between the North and South Downs. It can be split into three parts, the High Weald, the Low Weald and the Greensand Ridge. The High Weald runs in an easterly direction from St Leonard's Forest, south-west of Crawley, and continues to Ashdown Forest. Its eastern extremity is in two sections, divided by the River Rother valley. The northern arm reaches the sea at Folkestone (in Kent); the southern at Fairlight Down east of Hastings.

Within the Weald lies Sussex's highest point, the pine-clad Black Down, close to the Surrey border at 280 metres (920 ft) Another high point is in the part called Forest Ridges: a height of 242 metres (794 ft) is reached at Beacon Hill in the neighbourhood of Crowborough.

The Weald gets its name from the Old English weald, meaning "forest". The High Weald has the greatest amount of ancient woodland in any AONB, representing 7% of all the ancient woodland in England. Around 1660 the total area under forest was estimated to exceed 200,000 acres (81,000 ha), and charcoal from the woodlands supplied the furnaces and forges of the ironworks which formed an important industry in the county until the 17th century, and which survived even until the early years of the 19th century.



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