US-1485145 384 - ая открытка

Country: USA

Distance:  11,468 km

Travel time:  27 days

On postcard: Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle (Honu)

Turtle enthusiasts are spreading the word about saving this threatened species from extinction. Sea turtles evolved 180 million years ago, long before the Hawaiian Islands were formed. For turtles, Hawai`i is a luckier home than some other places. When Christopher Columbus sailed through the Caribbean in 1503, he saw so many green sea turtles that he named three islands Las Tortugas. He called the turtles the most valuable reptiles in the world, and they were soon exterminated for their shells and flesh as the western hemisphere was explored and exploited.

The green turtle is listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. In 1978, the Hawaiian population of the green turtle was listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973.

Green turtles were a source of food, tools, and ornamentation for early Hawaiians. With the arrival of western culture, however, the level of exploitation of this resource increased dramatically. Large numbers of green turtles were harvested throughout the Hawaiian Islands through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1974, the State of Hawaii finally passed a regulation providing some protection, but this was virtually ignored until 1978, when the Hawaiian green turtle was placed on the list of threatened species.

In other parts of the world, green turtles face a serious threat from the destruction and loss of nesting sites. Fortunately, over 90% of nesting activity for the Hawaiian green turtle population occurs at the French Frigate Shoals, inside a National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This, combined with its threatened status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, has created an environment in which the Hawaiian green turtle should prosper. Unfortunately, the Hawaiian green still faces severe threats, most notably fibropapilloma tumors and degradation of foraging habitat. Current Hawaiian green turtle population levels are still thought to be below pre-western contact, and probably pre-World War II levels as well. In 1992, the estimate of mature female green turtles associated with the French Frigate Shoals was set at roughly 750.

Green Sea Turtles are Endangered
Green sea turtles, as well as other sea turtles in Hawaii, are fully protected under both the federal Endangered Species Act and under Hawaii state law. These laws prohibit hunting, injuring or harassing sea turtles or holding them in captivity without first obtaining a special permit for research or educational purposes. Swimmers and divers should be aware that riding sea turtles is illegal as it puts the animals under unnecessary stress. Fines for violating these laws protecting turtles can be as high as $100,000 and may even include some time in prison.

Under provisions in the Endangered Species Act, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Hawaii's Department of Land and Natural Resources have recently formed a recovery team to help restore Hawaii's green sea turtle population to previous levels. The goals of the recovery team are to identify research, management and enforcement needs for effective sea turtle conservation in the islands as well as promoting sea turtle protection through public education programs.  Conservation websites such as this one help to spread the word and foster support.

It is believed the green sea turtle reaches sexual maturity around 25 years and can live up to 80 years of age.  Turtles return to where they were hatched to lay their eggs.  Every second or third year, turtles migrate hundreds of miles to nest.  Each female will lay two or three clutches of 100 to 110 eggs each before swimming back to its favorite resting and feeding area in the protected waters of the inshore reef.  With a robust conservation program, we can see all Hawaiian Sea Turtles mature and live long lives.

Observe Hawaiian Green Sea Turtles
If you are interested in observing the Green Sea Turtle in the wild - visit the Big Island of Hawaii -- you won't be disappointed.  On the Big Island you have a chance to sea the turtles in their natural land habitat as well as in the ocean - this is truly a unique opportunity.

You can see the Hawaiian Sea Turtles (Honu) at virtually any Kona beach.  If the waters are clear, you can snorkel or dive with them and enjoy a truly unique opportunity!  Please do not disturb the turtles - do not touch them, do not chase them, do not scare them, do not get closer than 20-feet of them!  Visit the following beaches and you are certain to see the green sea turtles - you may even be able to swim with them.

There are many opportunities to take photos of these beautiful creatures.  You will often see them in the shallow waters over the lava rocks or near the sandy beach.  The turtles here are very comfortable with people and swim alongside the swimmers and snorkelers - however, please do not touch or chase the turtles!  Give them plenty of room to swim, and allow them to move freely and surface for air.  Remember, the turtles are protected by law and it is illegal to touch any turtles!



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